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Diagnostic Testing

Crozer-Keystone’s hospitals are staffed by a highly trained and educated team of heart specialists who use a series of diagnostic tools and services including:

Noninvasive, Semi-invasive Procedures

Doppler Echocardiogram

A Doppler Echocardiogram is a non-invasive cardiac procedure that measures blood flow through heart valves and chambers to detect valve lesions and abnormalities in flow.


An Echocardiogram is an ultrasound evaluation of heart function, size, murmurs, suspected infections, embolic events and other problems.


An electrocardiogram (ECC or EKG) is a recording of the heart’s electrical activity which can show different rhythms that provide clues to symptoms and potential problems.

Holter Monitor

A Holter Monitor is a device the size of a camera that checks for abnormal heart rhythms; the monitor, connected to electrodes on the chest, is worn on a shoulder strap for 8 to 24 hours while the patient engages in normal activity.

Pharmacologic Nuclear Stress Echocardiogram

During a Pharmacologic Nuclear Stress Echocardiogram, a drug and a radioisotope heart scanning material are injected, then a scanning camera records images to determine whether there is reduced blood supply to areas of the heart.

Stress Echocardiogram

A Stress Echocardiogram (ECG) is performed to assess the heart's response to stress or exercise. The ECG is monitored while a person is exercising on a treadmill or stationary bike.

Tilt Table Testing

Tilt Table Testing determines whether an abnormal nervous system reflex, which controls heart rate and blood pressure, is responsible for lightheadedness, dizziness, or passing out.

Transesophageal Echocardiogram

During a transesophageal echocardiogram, the patient’s throat is numbed and an endoscopic probe is swallowed, providing a close-up image of the heart; patients remain conscious, but are sedated for their comfort during the procedure.

Invasive Procedures

Cardiac Catheterization

Cardiac catheterization enables physicians to see the coronary arteries and heart valves, showing narrowed or blocked arteries, defective valves, or other problems. It is generally performed to diagnose a heart condition and determine whether a patient needs treatment to open a blocked artery or re-route the blood flow around it.

During a cardiac catheterization, a thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted through a blood vessel in the arm or groin and guided to the heart. Dye (x-ray contrast) is injected through the catheter and x-ray pictures are taken of the coronary arteries to see whether they are narrowed or blocked and to find plaque.

Electrophysiology Studies

An electrophysiological study (EP study) is an invasive procedure that evaluated abnormal heart rhythm disturbances. During an EP study, small, thin wire electrodes are inserted through a vein in the groin (or neck, in some cases). The wire electrodes are threaded into the heart, using a special type of X-ray, called fluoroscopy. Once in the heart, electrical signals are measured. Electrical signals are sent through the catheter to stimulate the heart tissue to try to initiate the abnormal heart rhythm disturbances for evaluation.

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